Re-Imagining Mary: A Journey Through Art to the Feminine Self
In Christianity the Advent-Christmas Mystery celebrates the historical birth of Jesus through the mythological imagery of Virgin Birth, Cave, Star, and the Child-God. Feelings of renewal related to the winter solstice and the ancient Saturnalia festivals find echoes in our own family reunions, gift-giving, and general merry making on New Year’s Eve. The circular “return” to primordial Origins for renewal has given way to linear history with its goal of unlimited progress. Yet the soul’s language is circular, as Frances Hatfield writes in her poem “The Soul’s Geometry” from The Book of Now: Poetry for the Rising Tide:
We are not traveling a straight line as thoughts do.This “looking” is a soul hunger, a return or remembering beyond history still slumbering in the unconscious of those who crowd churches on Christmas day, many who do not believe in Virgin Birth, angels, etc. and have lost the imaginative power to see reality in the mythic world which these images reflect. We want to feel, to surrender ego momentarily in the imaginal world of music, poetry, and ritual of remembrance made present. Back in 1936 C.G. Jung suggested what he felt each of us needs and longs to remember, “In the last analysis most of our difficulties come from losing contact with our instinct, with the age-old unforgotten wisdom stored up in us.”(2)
A circle is a line that went looking for itself.(1)
It is this remembering as the profound meaning of the Incarnation and the essence of some religions that makes Advent and Psychic Birth as relevant today as it was when it was published in 1993. While the literalists take the Christmas myth as history, and the doubtful seeing the cracks in the whole Christian myth still enjoy the artful Nativity story and its magical mystery, many atheists, taking science and materialism as guide while dismissing angels and stars, still hunger for the communal sense fostered by living myth. In Jung’s view Christmas rituals and the Christ Child image speak to our longing for rebirth, that is for greater awareness of our innate divinity, and they are a “religious necessity only so long as the majority of people are incapable of giving psychological reality to the saying: ‘Except ye become as little children…”’(3) Exploring the Child-God mythic image and its powerful psychic energies latent within us, we participate in the emerging myth or spirituality of the 21st century and beyond.
In this article, I want to offer a few meanings of myth, the Child-God and the imaginal world in which they are experienced. Why focus on these topics? Years ago in church settings during discussions of Advent and Psychic Birth, a number of people questioned my use of the phrase “Christian myth.” Comments ranged from, “I was taught that myth is pagan and false” to “Myth is less than history for history consists of ‘real events’ and is therefore true.” Over the years thanks to the influence of Joseph Campbell and others we have a better idea of how mythology affects our lives. Yet Jungian analyst James Hollis has recently published two books on myth saying that he senses a need “out there.”(4) I hope that you will explore these topics more fully than is possible here, using resources listed here as well as others readily available. It is a sad commentary on the spiritual hunger of our times that expressions of soul or imaginal experience have been overshadowed by the reams of ego-based information that can overwhelm us. The word, “mythological" is a stumbling block for many who either dismiss it as old fashioned or fear it as “pagan.”
Myth and Mythic Sensibility
“Pagan myth” has greatly enriched Christianity’s beauty, and this is true especially during the Christmas season with its joyous music, its crèche, its promise of hope and above all, its message of love. At a Christian academics’ meeting years ago a sign read, “The DNA of Christianity is pagan.” This is a reference to the many similarities of images and motifs found in pre-Christian times: virgin births, saviors, Child-Gods, angel mediators, annunciations, goddesses of heaven and earth, together with rituals of bread, wine and water that have found their way into the Christian religion, inspiring exquisite art, music, and poetry opening us to depths of soul. For Jung myth is the language of the unconscious soul reflected in our dreams as well as in all the arts, especially music, for here, momentarily, we surrender to a Greater than our ego, an “out of time” experience. The soul truth expressed in myth and acted out in rituals hidden deep within the unconscious psyche of our ancestors resonates within us still, the presence of a timeless Reality and its Mystery.
Mythic stories bring us to similar depth. Where do they come from? I used to think that Revelation in a religious sense came from heaven, another “world.” In a sense it is true that in the unconscious soul of particularly intuitive persons, the mythmakers, the deepest longings of the human race have been expressed in story. Myths use symbolical language, the language of the imagination, to express unknown but intuited Greater Reality often referred to as the “numinous” or “God.” An image or person becomes a symbol if that person or image carries such intense energy for us that it opens to something beyond itself to Unknown Mystery. The intense energy with which we encounter such persons or things indicates in Jung’s view an aspect of our own soul. Those who have religious experiences are hard put to find words or figures to express them because the words never quite capture the experience. Symbols are bridges to that Beyond. Through the years Jung noted in his patients’ dreams and visions many of the images found in ancient myths: serpent, tree, mountain cave, child, etc. Dreamers who are captivated by an image often respond in awe to invisible realms it may open within them and in so doing they are living the mythic life.
We know that the Judeo-Christian myth answers questions like, “Who am I,” “Where did I come from,” “Why is there suffering?” in the Book of Genesis, a work of poetic genius describing the creation of the world and its inhabitants by a Father God, Yahweh, who created the world and looking upon it, saw its goodness. In the story Adam and Eve as the first couple are expelled from the Garden of delights. Feeling lost and guilty of sin, they need a savior. In Christianity the Son of God takes on human nature to redeem humanity through his death and resurrection and the story finishes at the end of time with the Final Judgment when Christ will come again to judge the living and the dead. The center of the story is the Incarnation when the eternal “pierces” time through Jesus.
Christians live both in history and in eternity, expressed through the Christian myth. One of the treasures of being Catholic, it seemed to me, was always to be reminded of the eternal “other” world existing somewhere. It took me time to realize that the “other” is within. For the person who asks about the relation of myth to history, it is important to note that while history begins with an event, myth does not. Myth expresses a truth in poetic mode. True, both history and myth are narratives and thus give us a structure, a “world view” in which to live our lives. The myth is always happening in a spiral if not circular effect within, for do we not experience many rebirths, “deaths” and “resurrections” throughout our life? As the 13th century mystic Meister Eckhart reminds us, the birth of God is always happening in the soul. Psychically, myth is the story of the soul, its despairing moments, its journeying toward fulfilling its longing, its intimations of immortality. Myth is true because it is an expression of our human nature in its soul searching or longing for Paradise or wholeness.(5) And though scientists today speak of quantum physics and the possible existence of multiple universes, for millions the Christian story holds a powerful resonance. Yet, for many, the story ceases to provide sustenance since it does not accord with modem scientific knowledge or it has been presented as history.
It is important to note that myth changes meaning throughout history and different cultures. For example there is no evidence that Adam and Eve were historical persons and it is generally noted that taken symbolically Adam means “earth” and Eve means “life” which would indicate that humans are a combination of “earth” or body and “life” as soul. Here is where Jung, exploring the psychic meaning of myth, helped to revitalize it. Jung’s focus on the unconscious soul and its expressiveness in the language of myth and symbol put him at odds at times with the Catholic Church which generally has taken the Christian story literally. Years ago he wrote that while the Church is a treasury of symbols, the myth, taken literally, closes the door to a more personal or symbolic connection. “People are worn out by the effort of having to cling on to ideas which seem incomprehensible to them and therefore quite literally unbelievable.”(6) The Annunciation, for example, interpreted as an historical event reduces the image dramatically and distances the viewer from understanding the personal spiritual message therein, its call from the soul to accept the psychic “birth” of one’s own potential, and one’s creativity in whatever capacity. (See my book Re-Imagining Mary, a Journey through Art to the Feminine Self.) Jung believed that if the energy pulsating through these vital images is dwindling, it calls for a new way of seeing or revitalizing an older way.
This is the way of imagination where the mythic and the spiritual are experienced as real, even more real than the physical world, as in visions and dreams, great drama and poetry. Here “Virgin Birth” is true in its symbolic reality, in all its beauty and depth. “The spiritual void or crisis of meaning in Western society is a crisis of imagination,” wrote Christian mystic and theologian, Thomas Merton. He continued, “The trend of modern thought away from symbolism has frustrated the basic human need for symbol and metaphor to the point of perversion: we have become instinctively suspicious of that for which we are starved.”(7) Jung’s work honoring the soul and its language in myth and symbol has attracted millions of those “starved.” One of his friends, Henry Corbin (1903-1978), who was brought up Catholic and for years taught and wrote on Islamic spirituality, believed that Western Christianity could be renewed if it could draw on the richness of the Iranian view of the imagination. Corbin was appalled at how Imagination has been denigrated to a superficial “imaginary” which usually means “unreal.”
In writing of the Sufi tradition Corbin explains that in their complicated cosmology the imaginal world, called “interworld,” is midway between the sensate or physical and the realm of intellect. On this middle level, lacking in the Western thought, the Sufis teach that we experience dreams, visions and all spiritual meaning including prayer which they view as the highest form of imagination (usually capitalized in this tradition). Here we leave history (though history, too, has its imaginative component in its various interpretations), and dwell in “eternity” or mythic time. Here the Burning Bush that Moses saw, which on the physical level would be a pile of brushwood, is a Divine manifestation. In this Iranian spirituality, creations, annunciations, and incarnations happen over and over again, not just once in history.(8) These moments or “theophanies” are experienced on the imaginal level as pathways to a greater Presence. On this level the soul can feel “at home,” resonating with its inner truth.
To be present to this order even for a fleeting moment is to be in the mythic and imaginal world. We all have experienced such moments when by surprise we are awed by beauty when ordinary things seem transformed or when we feel surrounded by a Greater Presence. Among many artists, the painter Marc Chagall (1887-1985) has been for me a painter of ordinary things that capture an invisible presence permeating them. I loved his use of color and his playful sensibilities. I wondered why he delighted in painting flowers, houses, dogs, cats, musical instruments and people often flying about in the sky. Daily life is his subject—the reality of birth, marriage, children, food, clowns, celebrations, funerals, all permeated with spirit. For he mixes the mundane and the mystical and his world seems one in an all- encompassing Presence. “His work has some ardent and sorrowful thirst for myth.” (9) Since early childhood he had been captivated by Biblical imagery both Hebrew and Christian. In the painting, “The Dream” he chooses a Christian mythic image, the Annunciation, and the painting is sometimes referred to as a Jewish Annunciation.
Let us look for a moment at this scene which pictures a Russian village at night. The bed where the young couple sits fully clothed is in the sky above the houses. Art historian Alfred Werner describes the young angel hovering over them and points out how the “pillow” wings of the angel echo the bed pillows. This detail, I feel, offers a nice touch of interweaving heavenly and earthly, as if the artist says, “It’s all one.” Chagall probably knew that in the gospel of Philip (86:4) the bridal chamber is a metaphor for the Holy of Holies in the temple of Jerusalem. We can wonder if the woman has announced her pregnancy to her lover. Has the angel announced or confirmed? In the lower right hand corner we see three letters, LAZ which may stand for the Lazarett, hospital(10) Maybe the rooster is announcing the news of an approaching birth.(11) Far in the upper right hand corner we see another building which looks like pictures of Rachel’s tomb in Palestine where childless women came to pray. Is “The Dream” like a message from the unconscious suggesting that the fulfillment of our longings for new life is present in the here and now?
In this picture we sense the artist’s vision: he sees daily life in its joys and struggles enveloped by an invisible world. The sensible world is instinct with the aura of a greater presence. Growing up in Vitebsk, Russia in a Jewish ghetto, Chagall experienced poverty and drabness. “I have chosen to paint; to me it has been as indispensable as food. Painting appeared to me like a window through which I could fly to another world…”(12) Chagall found solace and meaning in the irrational where the mythic sustained and nourished him. His childlike sensibility led him to intuit and to “see” the grandeur surrounding mundane daily events. Could it be that “The Dream” as Jewish Annunciation expressed the artist’s belief that every newborn is a “Messiah”?
In the wake of science and the demise of religious faith for many, the need for living myth continues. Philosopher of history Joachim de Fiore (1135-1202) mused about three ages of history: The Age of the Father in Judaism, the Age of the Son in Christianity, and the Age of the Spirit which he saw beginning in the 13th century when such renewal occurred for a time. Moderns searching for the “new” may realize that bits of the old provide its gestation. Some writers suggest that moderns still experience both pagan and Christian mythic images. We experience the pagan myths when we put up a Christmas tree (The tree is a symbol of the Mother Goddess) or when we enter a church at Christmas and reflect on the nativity scene, the Child at its center.
The child image still carries enormous psychic energy. One reason we know this is that the image occurs repeatedly in dreams. In my analytic practice many people have brought dreams of babies and pregnancies. Recently I interviewed a fifty year old man who when asked whether he had recurrent dreams, answered, “Yes, quite often I used to dream that I was given a baby that I was supposed to take care of.” Two months ago a client of another analyst gave him permission to share this recent dream image with me. In the dream the Virgin Mary is handing the infant Jesus over to the dreamer. What powerful dreams! The child image lives in the psyche of 21st century men and women. Is this related to the “unforgotten wisdom” that Jung feels remains unconscious within us, stirring at Christmas, leading us toward a more vibrant living myth?
The Child Archetype
In his essay on the Child Archetype, Jung elaborated on qualities of psychic energy for which the word “child” is appropriate. He is speaking of child as symbol not a literal child, though the two are related. For example often due to experience of trauma in early years children adjust to what is expected and thus develop a persona which is at odds with their nature or “roots.” Then as adults they become stilted or “unchildlike.” In his essay Jung considers the mythological child motif as related to past, present, and future.
As link with the past Jung again reminds us to refer not only to the historical past of the literal child, for the child motif represents the pre-conscious core of the personality, the Source or origin of our being, our “unconscious identity with the universe.”(13) It is these unforgotten psychic energies that draw us to the Christmas rituals and symbols. As noted, Jung suggests that one reason the religious observances happen over and over is to remind us of the link with our original Source. What we are as yet incapable of being or doing we project into the myth, into the Christ Child, for here we celebrate not only Jesus’s birth but psychically the remembrance or reconnection with the divine within ourselves.
The child motif, then, points not only to the pre-conscious past but to the present where this dynamic energy seeks to keep us psychically balanced or to compensate when our conscious mind (ego) becomes too overbearing. It regulates psychic opposites, conscious and unconscious, rational and non-rational. This psychic movement parallels our body’s need for balance between the sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (relaxation) modes, or between acidic and alkaline foods in our diet, (our pH). Dreams, remembered or not, contribute to achieving this psychic and body equilibrium. When we stray too far from our inner “ground” or Self we suffer the consequences with neuroses and all manner of disturbances including depression and psychosomatic symptoms, the result of rejecting or suppressing the Divine energies, the needs of the soul.
The child represents the future because it symbolizes potential. The child wants to develop and this means change. Literally when we see a newborn we can’t help but marvel at this little miracle “bundle of joy” who, of course, may become a little or big terror! The human baby in its fragility and helplessness, its unconsciousness, stirs within us a glimmer of hope, of possibility and new life. And we know that challenges and difficulties will come in its path. The mythic child begins in insignificance but is invincible. Jung writes that this child “is born out of the womb of the unconscious, begotten out of the depths of human nature, or rather out of living Nature herself. It is a personification of vital forces quite outside the limited range of our conscious mind; of ways and possibilities of which our one-sided conscious mind knows nothing; a whole which embraces the very depths of Nature. It represents the strongest, the most ineluctable urge in every being, namely, the urge to realize itself.”(14)
Threatened and weak, yet strong and invincible, these qualities are seen in the mythic Child-God who is born miraculously (virgin conception or miraculous birth) or in mountain caves or sacred springs, since this birth represents a psychic realization. The Greek Child-God, Zeus, God of law and order, was born in a cave, and Dionysus, the God of wine and frenzy, in some accounts, was washed up by the sea. The Child-God suffers all kinds of hardships: abandonment and attempts on his life, for this birth is not welcome to the status quo. (Note Herod’s attempts to kill the infant Jesus.) For Jung, this presence of the victorious Child-God in many world mythologies indicates a psychological reality in all people, that throughout our lives we experience forces that seem to work against us and yet we usually come through them to periods of renewal. Longing for the new, for rebirth, is one aspect of the oldest myths, and the Child-God image corresponds to this desire to return to the Source of life - to our instinctual “roots.”
Taking Back the Child-God
We have seen how the language of soul describing our deepest needs is expressed and made real in the realm of imagination where the child as one image resonates with us as carrying possibility, life, and hope. In this section I draw on Jungian analyst John P. Dourley ‘s On Behalf of the Mystical Fool. (15) He writes that as change happens slowly and builds on past tradition, it seems providential that two great thinkers, C.G. Jung and Teilhard de Chardin (both in their time censured by the Church) spoke to the unfolding of a myth or spirituality for the future. Teilhard speaks of the unfolding in a cosmological evolutionary sense and Jung, toward psychic growth as movement toward greater consciousness effecting both inner and outer worlds. They agree on the natural divinity of the human person and on the invisible Divine presence in Mother Nature. Teilhard speaks of a divinity being born today feminine in nature, the Spirit of Sophia Wisdom. Jung suggests that our longing for Paradise and wholeness implies a return to our maternal Origin or psyche, which holds the possibility of rebirth, a natural psychic process. Jung was interested in Eastern religious thought and found it helpful in parallel to his revision of Incarnation. “With us, man is incommensurably small and the grace of God is everything, but in the East man is God and he redeems himself.”(16)
What follows from Jung’s concept that psyche has a “religious function,” a capability for experiencing Deity, is his denial of a transcendent God who came down from heaven and assumed human nature. God is not “without” but “within,” as the Sufis say, “There is no God but the experience of God.”(17) Jung applies the religious word Incarnation to his psychological approach that as the ego opens itself to the Self, the greater transpersonal power of psyche, we become more fully human because we live more rooted in our Source. This Source is unlimited in scope and the Ground of our being. If we are open to these depths we experience renewal described as “child” or “oneself.” The Jung myth presupposes taking the gods projected “out there” back to the soul from which they emerged.
How does the unconscious become more conscious in individuals and history? The individuation journey to wholeness leads gradually to awareness and integration of personal complexes, projections, etc. and into a greater acceptance of self and other, a larger compassion and love of the diversity and interconnectedness of the world, the “unus mundus.” Becoming open to the “inner Ground” through attending to dreams, synchronicities, and meditation, one discovers oneself and opens to others as “oneself.” Jung writes that Eastern introversion is more conducive to “self-liberation” than Western Christianity where the saving liberating power comes from beyond the human, from an external Savior. In Eastern religions, as noted, the person is savior to himself/herself. (18) Jung questions whether the western extraverted style can practice the discipline necessary for this self-liberation and the unmediated experience of God or Unitary Reality. At the same time he sees similarities between the Zen-like practice of meditation and the depth psychological approach of “listening” to the unconscious soul. This explains his attraction not only to Zen Buddhism but to the Christian mystics, especially Meister Eckhart (1260-1328) who described the deep mystical experience where God and creature become one Reality.
Jung’s revisioning of the Christian myth places Divine Presence not only within us but in nature and all things. Both Jung and Teilhard de Chardin have been accused of pantheism defined as this presence. Teilhard speaks of “‘sacred” matter and Jung writes, “It was only quite late that we realized (or rather, are beginning to realize) that God is Reality itself and therefore—last but not least—man. This realization is a millennial process.”(19) Dreaming the myth onward means giving attention not only to our inner life but to the outer world contemplating there the presence shining through daily events. When we give attention, become “one” with a stone or flower or tree it rewards us by “speaking” back. As Dourley notes, both Jung and Teilhard were mystics and pantheists in this sense. Many today who find in these prophets spiritual sustenance long to be in tune with the God Reality present.
The pendulum has swung too far from the earlier beginnings of the Judeo-Christian myth away from the former Earth Mother Goddess. For the latter, mythic stories tell of the creation of the world out of Her body, since all diversities: heaven, earth, Nature and Spirit were united in her image. In contrast the Sky or Father God saw his creation as separate from himself and called it “good.” The Father God myth brought with it welcome emphasis on Spirit and consciousness but, unfortunately, at the expense of splitting from the values of Nature, and the non-rational realm. Yet the Goddess myth of unity and oneness could not be abolished and to its credit, in the view of many, the Catholic Church continued some aspect of the Goddess through the image of the Virgin Mary. But the Sky God mythology took hold and at this point we live in a society that calls myth “false,” denigrates the non-rational and imagination, calling it “imaginary” and after 1500 hundred years still generally regards earth, the feminine realm, and women as inferior. It may be that the archetypal image of the child and its energies are surfacing to lead us forward to a new, deeper understanding.
The mythic child comes out of “living Nature herself” representing wholeness, the union of opposites, of light and shadow, matter and spirit, rational and non-rational, masculine and feminine. Its urgency to develop comes with an invincible Spirit moving into the future. It “appears” at Christmas in the nativity or crèche scene resembling a mandala (circle) where the numinous center, the Christ Child is surrounded by Mary, Joseph, shepherds, Magi and animals. In the 13th century St. Francis of Assisi, that great nature mystic, came closer to focusing on the Child alone when he filled a manger with straw, tied up ox and ass close by and invited people in surrounding villages to circle around as he celebrated Mass. Jung used to say that we are the stable in which the child is born emphasizing the psychic personal nature of the image. The child comes from the soul’s darkness as the unforgotten wisdom that “calls” to us during winter darkness.
Years ago at a Christmas Mass the officiating priest, beginning his sermon, held up a baby for the entire congregation to see. “This,” he began, “is the real meaning of Christmas!” Handing the infant back to his mother seated in the front pew, the priest continued, “But Jesus grew up and it is his adult life that inspires us, for he came as our Savior.” There he “lost” me; I wanted to hear more about the child, childlikeness and why Jesus said the child is first and greatest in the Kingdom of God. For that brief moment, as he held the infant, smiling and reaching out to the parishioners who responded with smiles and murmurs, I sensed an echo of that primordial wisdom of the Child-Gods, those psychic energies within our soul. Like the Divine Child, they come to save us. To “save” means to “give life.”
In Jung’s view, the modern myth evolves as we take back the Child-God and, conscious of our shadow, experience our innate divinity. In so doing we create a future where we respect each other’s dignity and live with more compassion and love. Psychically the child image remains alive, and remembering our unforgotten wisdom becomes the touchstone and profound significance of the beautiful Christmas story.
Mariann Burke is a Jungian analyst in private practice in Boston. In addition to Advent and Psychic Birth, she is the author of Re-Imagining Mary: A Journey Through Art to the Feminine Self. Mariann holds degrees from the University of Pittsburgh, Andover-Newton Theological School and the C.G. Jung Institute in Zurich and has done graduate work in scripture at Union Theological Seminary and La Salle University. She is a member of the Religious of the Sacred Heart.
1 Frances Hatfield, “The Soul’s Geometry,” The Book of Now: Poetry for the Rising Tide, ed. Leah Shelleda (Carmel, CA: Fisher King Press, 2012), p. 70.
2 William McGuire and R.F.C. Hull, eds, “The 2,000,000 Year Old Man” in C.G. Jung Speaking (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), p. 89.
3 C.G. Jung, “The Psychology of the Child Archetype,” CW 9i (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), p. 169.
4 See James Hollis, Tracking the Gods: The Place of Myth in Everyday Life (Toronto: Inner City Books, 1995) and Mythologems: Incarnations of the Invisible World (Toronto: Inner City Books, 2004).
5 For an interesting discussion of this topic see Lynn White, “Christian Myth and Christian History,” in Journal of History of Ideas, iii.2 (New York, 1942). Also see Hal Childs, The Myth of the Historical Jesus and the Evolution of Consciousness, PhD. Dissertation (Atlanta, Georgia: Society of Biblical Literature, 2000.) for discussion of John D. Crossan and C.G. Jung on approaches to the historical Jesus and myth.
6 C.G. Jung, Letters, Vol 2 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, LTD, 1978), p. 288.
7 Christopher Pramuk, Sophia: The Hidden Christ of Thomas Merton (Collegeville, Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 2009), p. 275.
8 Henry Corbin, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth: Mazdean Iran to Shi’ite Iran. Trans. By Nancy Pearson, Bollingen Series (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977), xii. See also Henry Corbin, Alone with the Alone: Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn Arabi (Princeton: Princeton University Press,l969)p. 4ff.
9 Benjamin Harshav, ed. Marc Chagall on Art and Culture (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003), p. 183.
10 Alfred Werner, Chagall: Watercolors and Gouaches (New York: Watson Guptill Publications, 1998), p. 58.
11 Alfred Werner, Chagall: Watercolors and Gouaches, p. 58.
12 Harshav, ed. Marc Chagall on Art and Culture, p. 134.
13 C.G. Jung, “The Child Archetype,” CW 9i, p. 172.
14 C.G. Jung, “The Child Archetype,” CW 9i, p. 170.
15 John P. Dourley, On Behalf of the Mystical Fool: Jung on the Religious Situation (New York: Routledge, 2010) pp. 7, 31. See Chapter 3, “Taking Back the Divinity,” pp. 46-68.
16 C.G. Jung, “Psychological Commentary on ‘The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation,’” CW 11, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969), p. 480.
17 Corbett, L. Psyche and the Sacred: Spirituality Beyond Religion (New Orleans: Spring Journal, 2007), p.4
18 John P. Dourley, On Behalf of the Mystical Fool: Jung on the Religious Situation, p. 48.
19 C.G. Jung, “Answer to Job,” CW 11 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969), p. 402.